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Database of banking crises


Information about banking crises, countries, Lowest real GDP growth rate around the crisis, Output loss (IMF)(as % of GDP)and more. World Bank 2003


Country and Time frame Lowest real GDP growth rate around the crisis In % Share of NPLs at peak (in %) Share of insolvent banks/assets at peak (in %) Fiscal Cost (as % of GDP) Output loss (IMF) (as % of GDP) Comments Systemic crisis? (Yes/No)
Albania, 1992– -27.5 31       After the July 1992 cleanup, 31 percent of “new” banking system loans were nonperforming. Some banks faced liquidity problems due to a logjam of inter-bank liabilities. Yes
Algeria, 1990–92 -2.1 50         Yes
Angola, 1991– -24.7       36.47 Two state-owned commercial banks have experienced solvency problems. No
Argentina, 1980–82 -5.7 9 16 55.1 17 More than 70 institutions—accounting for 16 percent of commercial bank assets and 35 percent of finance company assets—were liquidated or subjected to central bank intervention. Yes
Argentina, 1989–90 -7.5 27 40   13.37   Yes
Argentina, 1995 -4.2     2 12.23 Eight banks suspended and three banks collapsed. Through the end of 1997, 63 of 205 banking institutions were closed or merged. Yes
Argentina, 2001– -10.9 20.1     15.03 In March 2001, a bank run started due to increasing doubts about the sustainability of the currency board, strong opposition from the public to the new fiscal austerity package sent to the Congress, the resignation of president of the Central Bank, and the amendment to the convertibility law. On December 3, 2001, as several banks were at the verge of collapsing, partial withdrawal restrictions (corralito) were imposed to transactional accounts while fixed-term deposits (CDs) were reprogrammed ( Yes
Armenia, 1994–96 -41.8   50     Starting in August 1994, the Central Bank closed half of active banks. Large banks continued to suffer from high nonperforming loans. The savings bank was financially weak. Yes
Australia, 1989–92 -0.1 6   2   Two large banks received capital from the government to cover losses. Nonperforming loans rose to 6 percent of assets in 1991–92. Rescuing state-owned banks was estimated to cost 2 percent of GDP. No
Azerbaijan, 1995– -19.7         Twelve private banks closed; three large state-owned banks deemed insolvent; one large state-owned bank faced serious liquidity problems. Yes
Bangladesh, Late 1980s–96 2.2 20 95   na In 1987 four banks accounting for 70 percent of credit had nonperforming loans of 20 percent. From the late 1980s the entire private and public banking system was technically insolvent. Yes
Belarus, 1995– -11.7       0.47 Many banks undercapitalized; forced mergers burdened some banks with poor loan portfolios. No
Benin, 1988–90 -2.9 80   17   All three commercial banks collapsed. Yes
Bolivia, 1986–88 -2.6         Five banks were liquidated. Banking system nonperforming loans reached 30 percent in 1987; in mid-1988 reported arrears stood at 92 percent of commercial banks’ net worth. Yes
Bolivia, 1994– 1.6   30     Two banks with 11 percent of banking system assets were closed in 1994. In 1995, 4 of 15 domestic banks, accounting for 30 percent of banking system assets, experienced liquidity problems and suffered high nonperforming loans. Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1992– na       na Banking system suffers from high nonperforming loans due to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the civil war. Yes
Botswana, 1994–95 1.9     0.6 0.6 One problem bank was merged in 1994, a small bank was liquidated in 1995, and the state-owned National Development Bank was recapitalized. Recapitalizing the National Development Bank cost 0.6 percent of GDP. No
Brazil, 1990 -4.3       10.8 Deposits were converted to bonds. Yes
Brazil, 1994–99 0.1 15 15.4 13.2   In 1996 the negative net worth of selected state and federal banks was 5–10 percent of GDP. By the end of 1997 bank recapitalizations had cost $3 billion for Banco Economico, $3 billion for Bamerindus, $8 billion for Banco do Brazil, and $5 billion for Unibanco. By the end of 1997 the Central Bank had intervened in or put under temporary administration 43 financial institutions. Private banks returned to profitability in 1998, but public banks did not begin to recover until the following yea Yes
Brunei, Mid–1980s -2.7 9     na Several financial firms failed. The second largest bank failed in 1986. No

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